Global Cardiac Output Monitoring Devices Market: Snapshot
For critically ill, high risk patients who need surgery, cardiac output (CO) monitoring is considered to be a significant tool. It is important for patients in whom large shifts of fluid are anticipated together with anticipation of hemodynamic instability and bleeding. It is regarded as a significantly important element of goal directed therapy (GDT) for instance when administration of medicine and vasopressors is used in conjunction with cardiac monitor so as to obtain therapeutic endpoints thereby bettering outcome and patient care. It is not possible to measure cardiac output credibly through routine assessment and clinical examination.
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There are numerous methods of cardiac output monitoring which are based on bioimpedance, pulse contour analysis, thermodilution, Doppler, and Ficks principle. However, each and every method has its own disadvantages and advantages. An ideal cardiac output monitoring devices should have fast time of response, should be either non-invasive or minimally, reproducible, cost effective, continuous, and dependable through various physiological conditions. Furthermore, advancement in the field of computer hardware and software has resulted in the development of better and newer methods of cardiac output monitoring devices which have either minimal or no vascular access.
Pulmonary artery catheter or PAC as it is conveniently known as refers to a monitor that is used for the measurement of pressure and flow and was designed and developed by Dexter. It was later on modified by Swan et al so as to make a measurement of central filling pressures and cardiac output. Pulmonary artery catheter is still regarded as gold standard monitor for the purposed of the measurement of cardiac output since 1970’s. It is being further utilized for the purpose of monitoring in various critical care units and high risk surgeries.
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Cardiac output is known as the volume of blood is pumped by from the right or left ventricle of heart per minute and which is dependent on heart rate, and stroke volume. The cardiac output increases during acute exercise and mental stress, while decreased cardiac output might include physical exercise of a intensity that the patient is not able to bear because of decrease in oxygen supply, obesity, ingestion of large meals that place an added workload on the heart, retention of fluid, emotional stress, hypervolemia, and smoking. It is essential to assess the state of patient’s blood circulation. Low cardiac output usually leads to a common problem of low blood pressure which might surface occur during surgery, or during postoperative care in the intensive care units.
In high-risk surgical patients and critically ill patients the arterial blood pressure and cardiac output usually are monitored more comprehensively. Cardiac output monitoring devices are used to know the cardiac output of heart and arterial oxygen content which enable the circulation of continuous systemic oxygen supply to the body. Doubling the cardiac output leads to double amount of the oxygen supply to the tissues, while the low cardiac output leads to inadequate supply of oxygen to organs like brain and the low amount of cellular oxygenation can cause tissue and organ failure.
The major observed causative factors for the decrease cardiac output are congenital heart defects, pathologic changes in the heart’s muscle, blood dyscrasias, chronic pulmonary disease and electrolyte imbalances (as of potassium or calcium). According to North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, decreased cardiac output is defined as a state in which inadequate blood is pumped by the heart to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Cardiac output monitoring devices market is classified on the basis of product type, methods, end-user and geography.
On the basis of product type the market is broadly classified into invasive, minimally-invasive and non-invasive cardiac output monitoring devices. The invasive cardiac output monitoring has been traditionally accomplished using the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC), but complications associated with PAC has markedly decreased the widespread use of the PAC. The market demand for the non- invasive devices is high followed by minimally invasive devices as compare to invasive devices, due to factors such as ease, accessibility and cost- effectiveness and fast response time.
By methods the market is segmented as thermodilution method, pulse pressure analysis, Doppler method, bioimpedance and applied Fick principle. Each methods has its own merits and demerits. On the basis of end-user the market is segmented as hospitals, ambulatory care and critical care centers. By end-user hospitals covers the major market for cardiac output monitoring devices, because of reliability and conjunction of other therapeutic treatments. The factors such as raising incidences of cardiovascular diseases, increase in the number of people suffering from obesity, growing ageing population, and raising healthcare infrastructure facilities are the growth drivers of this market.
By geography, the market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the world. Geographically, North America was observed to have the major share of cardiac output monitoring device market due to high healthcare awareness, prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and technological advancement in the region. Europe contributes to the second largest share in the cardiac output monitoring device market growth with raising ageing population. However, Asia Pacific region is expected to be the fastest growing due to the gradual adoption of improved technologies, emerging health care infrastructures, and raising population with cardiac problems and obesity. Followed by Rest of the world.
The major key players operating in cardiac output monitoring device market include Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, Cheetah Medical, PULSION Medical Systems SE, Philips Healthcare, LiDCO Group plc, Boston Scientific Corporation, GE Healthcare, and others. Bioreactance-based NICOM Cheetah Medical remains the topmost non-invasive market leader.